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Ballad Criticism and Other Secondary Texts

This ever-expanding bibliography consists of both ballad criticism and other modern secondary sources that concern early modern English ballads.

Achinstein, Sharon. “Audiences and Authors: Ballads and the Making of English Literary Culture.” Journal of Medieval and Renaissance Studies 22, no. 3 (1992): 311‒26.

Alchin, Linda. “Greensleeves.” The Tudors Website.

Alcorn Baron, Sabrina. “Red Ink and Black Letter: Reading Early Modern Authority.” In The Reader Revealed, ed. Sabrina Alcorn Baron, with Elizabeth Walsh and Susan Scola. Washington, D.C.: Folger, 2001.

Artese, Charlotte. Shakespeare’s Folktale Sources. Lanham, MD: University of Delaware Press, 2015.

Atkinson, David. The Ballad and Its Pasts: Literary Histories and the Play of Memory. Cambridge, UK: D. S. Brewer, 2018.

⸻. The English Traditional Ballad: Theory, Method and Practice. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2002.

Ault, Norman, ed. Seventeenth Century Lyrics from the Original Texts. London: Longmans, Green and Co., 1928.

Backhouse, Clare. Fashion and Popular Print in Early Modern England: Depicting Dress in Black-Letter Ballads. London: I. B. Tauris & Co. Ltd, 2017.

Bain, Peter, and Paul Shaw, eds. Blackletter: Type and National Identity: A Catalogue of an Exhibition. New York: American Printing History Association, 1999.

Baker, David, with Travis Alexander, Adam Engel, Katharine Landers, Mary Learner, and Ashley Werlinich. “‘Dangerous Conjectures’: Ophelia’s Ballad Performance.” In Ballads and Performance: The Multi-Modality Theatricality of the Early Modern Stage, ed. Patricia Fumerton. Santa Barbara, CA: EMC Imprint, 2018.

Barnett, Gregory. “Tonal Organization in Seventeenth-Century Music Theory.” In The Cambridge History of Western Music Theory, ed. Thomas Christensen, 407‒55. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2002.

Barrow, Theodore. “From ‘The Easter Wedding’ to ‘The Frantick Lover’: The Repeated Woodcut and Its Shifting Roles.” In Studies in Ephemera: Text and Image in Eighteenth-Century Print, eds. Kevin D. Murphy and Sally O’Driscoll, 219‒40. Lanham, MD: Bucknell University Press, 2013.

Barry, Philips. “The Music of the Ballads” in British Ballads from Maine, ed. Philips Barry, Fannie Hardy Eckstrom, and Mary Winslow Smyth. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1929.

Baskerville, Charles Read. The Elizabethan Jig and Related Song Drama. New York: Dover, 1965.

Baum, Paul Franklin. The Principles of English Versification. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1929.

Beier, A. L. Masterless Men: The Vagrancy Problem in England, 1560‒1640. London: Methuen, 1985.

⸻. “Social Problems in Elizabethan London.” Journal of Interdisciplinary History 9, no. 2 (1978): 203‒21.

⸻ and Roger Finlay. Introduction to London 1500‒1700: The Making of the Metropolis, eds. A. L. Beier and Roger Finlay. London: Longman, 1986.

Bell, Erik. “Fitting Texts to Tunes: Separation, Reconciliation, and Melodic Malleability.” In The Making of a Broadside Ballad, eds. Patricia Fumerton, Andrew Griffin, and Carl Stahmer. Santa Barbara, CA: EMC Imprint, 2016.

Bialo, Caralyn. “Popular Performance, the Broadside Ballad, and Ophelia’s Madness.” Studies in English Literature, 1500‒1900 53, no. 2 (2013): 293‒309.

Blagden, Cyprian. “Notes on the Ballad Market in the Second Half of the Seventeenth Century.” Studies in Bibliography 6 (1954): 161-180.

Booth, Mark. The Experience of Songs. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1981.

The British Book Trade Index (BBTI)

Broadside Ballads Online. The Bodleian Libraries, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK.

Bronson, Bertrand Harris. The Singing Tradition of Child’s Popular Ballads. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1976.

⸻, ed. Traditional Tunes of the Child Ballads. 4 vols. Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1959-1972.

Broude, Ronald. “Roman and Goth in Titus Andronicus.” Shakespeare Studies 6 (1970): 27‒34.

Brown, Mary Ellen. “Child’s Ballads and the Broadside Conundrum.” In Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500‒1800, eds. Patricia Fumerton and Anita Guerrini, with Kris McAbee, 57‒74. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

⸻. Child's Unfinished Masterpiece: The English and Scottish Popular Ballads. Urbana-Champaign: University of Illinois Press, Spring, 2011.

⸻. William Motherwell's Cultural Politics 1797-1835. Lexington: University of Kentucky Press, 2001.

Buchan, David. The Ballad and the Folk. London and New York: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1972. Reprinted East Linton: Tuckwell Press, 1997.

Burke, Peter. Popular Culture in Early Modern Europe. London: Harper Torchbooks, 1978.

⸻. “Popular Culture in Seventeenth-Century London.” In Popular Culture in Seventeenth-Century England, ed. Barry Reay. London: Croom Helm, 1985.

Burk, Tara. “‘A Battleground Around the Crime’: The Visuality of Execution Ephemera and Its Cultural Significances in Late Seventeenth-Century England.” In Studies in Ephemera: Text and Image in Eighteenth-Century Print, eds. Kevin D. Murphy and Sally O’Driscoll, 195‒218. Lanham, MD: Bucknell University Press, 2013.

Carr, James Revell. “Recording Early Broadside Ballads.” English Broadside Ballad Archive. 2007.

Cashman, Ray. “The Heroic Outlaw in Irish Folklore and Popular Literature.” Folklore 111 (2000): 191-215.

Chartier, Roger. The Cultural Uses of Print in Early Modern France. Translated by Lydia G. Cochrane. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1987.

⸻. “Languages, Books, and Reading from the Printed Word to the Digital Text.” Translated by Teresa Lavender Fagan. Critical Inquiry 31 (Autumn 2004): 133-152.

Cheesman, Tom. The Shocking Ballad Picture Show: German Popular Literature and Cultural History. Oxford: Berg, 1994.

Chess, Simone. “‘And I my vowe did keepe’: Oath Making, Subjectivity, and Husband Murder in ‘Murderous Wife’ Ballads.” In Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500‒1800, eds. Patricia Fumerton and Anita Guerrini, with Kris McAbee, 131‒48. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Press, 2010.

Clark, Sandra. Women and Crime in the Street Literature of Early Modern England. Basingstoke: Palgrave, 2003.

Clayton, Tim. The English Print 1688-1802. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1997.

Clegg, Roger. “‘A Ballad Intituled a Pleasant Newe Jigge’: The Relationship between the Broadside Ballad and the Dramatic Jig.” In “Living English Broadside Ballads, 1550‒1750: Song, Art, Dance, Culture,” ed. Patricia Fumerton. Special issue of Huntington Library Quarterly 79, no. 2 (2016): 301‒22.

⸻ and Lucie Skeaping. Singing Simpkin and Other Bawdy Jigs: Musical Comedy on the Shakespearean Stage: Scripts, Music and Context. Exeter, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2014.

Cohen, Anne B. Poor Pearl, Poor Girl! The Murdered-Girl Stereotype in Ballad and Newspaper. Austin: University of Texas Press, 1981.

⸻. Pillars of Salt, Monuments of Grace: New England Crime Literature and the Origins of American Popular Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 1993.

Colbert, David, The Birth of the Ballad. The Scandinavian Medieval Genre. Stockholm: Svenskt visarkiv, 1989.

Coffin, Tristram P. “Remarks Preliminary to a Study of Ballad Meter and Ballad Singing.” The Journal of American Folklore 78, no. 308 (1965): 149-53.

Cone, Edward T. Musical Form and Musical Performance. New York: W. W. Norton and Co., 1968.

Creighton, Helen. Songs and Ballads from Nova Scotia. Toronto and Vancouver: J.M. Dent & Sons Ltd., 1932. Reprinted with corrections and Creighton’s “Postscript, 1966.” New York: Dover Publications, 1966.

Dane, Joseph and Svetlana Djananova. “The Typographical Gothic: A Cautionary Note on the Title Page to Percy’s Reliques of Ancient English Poetry.” Eighteenth-Century Life 29, no. 3 (2005): 76-97.

Davis, Bertram H. Thomas Percy: Scholar-Cleric in the Age of Johnson. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1989.

Dolan, Frances E. Dangerous Familiars: Representations of Domestic Crime in England, 1550-1700. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1994.

⸻. “Mopsa’s Method: Truth Claims, Ballads, and Print.” In “Living English Broadside Ballads, 1550‒1750: Song, Art, Dance, Culture,” ed. Patricia Fumerton. Special issue of Huntington Library Quarterly 79, no. 2 (2016): 173‒85.

⸻. “Tracking the Petty Traitor Across Genres.” In Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500‒1800, eds. Patricia Fumerton and Anita Guerrini, with Kris McAbee, 149‒72. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Press, 2010.

⸻. True Relations: Reading, Literature, and Evidence in Seventeenth-Century England. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2013.

Drabkin, William. “Motif [motive].” Oxford Music Online: Grove Music Online. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2001. Published online 2001.

Donatelli, Joseph. “The Percy Folio Manuscript: A Seventeenth-Century Context for Medieval Poetry.” English Manuscript Studies 1100-1700 (1993): 114-133.

Duffin, Ross W. Shakespeare’s Songbook. Foreword by Stephen Orgel. New York: W. W. Norton & Co., 2004.

⸻. Some Other Note: The Lost Songs in English Renaissance Comedy. Foreword by Tiffany Stern. New York: Oxford University Press, 2018.

Dugaw, Dianne M. “Anglo-American Folksong Reconsidered: The Interface of Oral and Written Forms.” Western Folklore 43 (1984): 83-103.

⸻. “‘Critical Instants’: Theater Songs in the Age of Dryden and Purcell.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 23 (1989-1990): 157-181.

⸻. “The Female Warrior Heroine in Anglo-American Popular Balladry.” 3 Vols. Ph.D. thesis, University of California, Los Angeles, 1982.

⸻. “The Popular Marketing of ‘Old Ballads’: The Ballad Revival and Eighteenth-Century Antiquarianism Reconsidered.” Eighteenth-Century Studies 21, no. 1 (1987): 71-90.

⸻. Warrior Women and Popular Balladry 1650-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989.

Early English Books Online (EEBO). ProQuest LLC. Updated Dec. 2018.

Early English Books Online-Text Creation Partnership (EEBO-TCP).

Eighteenth Century Collections Online (ECCO). Gale. .

English Broadside Ballad Archive (EBBA). Dir. Patricia Fumerton. University of California, Santa Barbara.

Egan, Gerald. “Black Letter and the Broadside Ballad.”

Finnegan, Ruth. Literacy and Orality: Studies in the Technology of Communication. Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1988.

Fiske, Roger. English Theater Music in the Eighteenth Century. 2nd edition. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Fox, Adam. “Ballads, Libels, and Popular Ridicule in Jacobean England.“ Past and Present 145 (1994): 47-83.

⸻.“Jockey and Jenny: English Broadside Ballads and the Invention of Scottishness.” In “Living English Broadside Ballads, 1550‒1750: Song, Art, Dance, Culture,” ed. Patricia Fumerton. Special issue of Huntington Library Quarterly 79, no. 2 (2016): 201‒20.

⸻. Oral and Literate Culture in England, 1500-1700. Oxford Studies in Social History. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press, 2000.

Franklin, Alexandra. “The Art of Illustration in Bodleian Broadside Ballads before 1820.” Bodleian Library Record 17, no. 5 (2002): 327-352.

⸻. “Making Sense of Broadside Ballad Illustrations in the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries.” In Studies in Ephemera: Text and Image in Eighteenth-Century Print, eds. Kevin D. Murphy and Sally O’Driscoll, 169‒94. Lanham, MD: Bucknell University Press, 2013.

Freedman, Jean R. “With Child: Illegitimate Pregnancy in Scottish Traditional Ballads.” Folklore Forum 24 (1991): 3-18.

Friedman, Albert B. The Ballad Revival: Studies in the Influence of Popular on Sophisticated Poetry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1961.

⸻. The Ballad Revival: Studies in the Influence of Popular on Sophisticated Poetry. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1963.

Frye, Northrop. “Recognition in The Winter’s Tale.” In Essays on Shakespeare and Elizabethan Drama in Honor of Hardin Craig, ed. Richard Hosley. Columbia: University of Missouri Press, 1962.

Fumerton, Patricia, ed. Broadside Ballads from the Pepys Collection: A Selection of Texts, Approaches, and Recordings. Tempe, AZ: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Studies, 2012.

⸻. “Digging into ‘Veritable Dunghills’: Re-appreciating Renaissance Broadside Ballads.” In A Companion to Renaissance Poetry, ed. Catherine Bates, 414‒31. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell, 2018.

⸻. “Digitizing Ephemera and Its Discontents: EBBA’s Quest to Capture the Protean Broadside Ballad.” In Studies in Ephemera: Text and Image in Eighteenth-Century Print, eds. Kevin D. Murphy and Sally O’Driscoll, 55‒98. Lanham, MD: Bucknell University Press, 2013.

⸻, dir. English Broadside Ballad Archive (EBBA). University of California, Santa Barbara.

⸻. “Mocking Aristocratic Place: The Perspective of the Streets.” In Vagrant Subjects, eds. Linda Woodbridge and Craig Dionne. Special issue of Early Modern Culture: An Electronic Seminar 7 (2008).

⸻. “Not Home: Alehouses, Ballads, and the Vagrant Husband in Early Modern England.” Journal of Medieval and Early Modern Studies 32, no. 3 (2002): 493-518.

⸻. “Remembering by Dismembering: Databases, Archiving, and the Recollection of Seventeenth-Century Broadside Ballads.” In Early Modern Literary Studies (EMLS) 14, no. 2, Special Issue 17 (September, 2008), ed. Shawn Martin.; reprinted in Ballads and Broadsides in Britain, 1500‒1800, eds. Patricia Fumerton and Anita Guerrini, with Kris McAbee, 13‒34. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate Press, 2010.

⸻. Unsettled: The Culture of Mobility and the Working Poor in Early Modern England. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006.

⸻, Andrew Griffin, and Carl Stahmer, eds. The Making of a Broadside Ballad. Santa Barbara, CA: EMC Imprint, 2016.

⸻ and Anita Guerrini, eds. With the assistance of Kris McAbee. Ballads and Broadsides in Britain: 1500-1800. Farnham, Surrey, UK: Ashgate, 2010.

⸻, Carl Stahmer, Kris McAbee, and Megan Palmer Browne. “Vexed Impressions: Toward a Digital Archive of Broadside Ballad Illustrations.” In Digitizing Medieval and Early Modern Material Culture, eds. Brent Nelson and Melissa Terras. Tempe, Arizona: Arizona Center for Medieval and Renaissance Texts and Studies, 2012.

⸻, and Megan E. Palmer, with William Palmer. “Lasting Impressions of the Common Woodcut.” In The Routledge Handbook of Material Culture in Early Modern Europe, eds. Catherine Richardson, Tara Hamling, and David Gaimster, 383‒99. New York: Routledge, 2017.

Fussel, Stephan. Gutenberg and the Impact of Printing. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.

Gammon, Vic. “Song, Sex and Society in England, 1600-1850.” Folk Music Journal 4 (1982): 208-45.

Gatch, M. McC. “John Bagford, Bookseller and Antiquary.” British Museum Publications 12 (1986): 150-171.

Gerould, G. H. The Ballad of Tradition. New York: Gordian Press, 1974.

Groom, Nick. The Making of Percy’s Reliques. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1999.

Harker, Dave. Fakesong: The Manufacture of British “Folksong” 1700 to the Present Day. Philadelphia: Open University Press, 1985.

Harris, Michael. London Newspapers in the Age of Walpole: A Study of the Origins of the Modern English Press. London: Associated University Presses, 1987.

Hendren, Joseph William. A Study of Ballad Rhythm, with Special Reference to Ballad Music. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1936.

Hudson, Nicholas. "Constructing Oral Tradition: The Origins of the Concept in Enlightenment Intellectual Culture." In The Spoken Word: Oral Culture in Britain, 1500-1850, eds. Adam Fox and Daniel Woolf. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2002.

⸻. “‘Oral Tradition’: The Evolution of an Eighteenth-Century Concept.” In Tradition in Transition: Women Writers, Marginal Texts, and the Eighteenth-Century Canon, eds. Alvaro Ribeiro and James G. Basker. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1996.

Hunt, Margaret. “Hawkers, Bawlers, and Mercuries: Women and the London Press in the Early Enlightenment.” In Women and the Enlightenment, ed. Eleanor S. Riemer. New York: The Institute for Research in History and The Haworth Press, Inc., 1984.

Hustvedt, Sigurd Bernhard. Ballad Books and Ballad Men. Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1930.

Ivins, William M., Jr. How Print Looks. Beacon Press, 1988.

Janowitz, Anne. Lyric and Labour in the Romantic Tradition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998.

Johns, Adrian. The Nature of the Book: Print and Knowledge in the Making. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1998.

Jonsson, Bengt R., ed. The Types of the Scandinavian Medieval Ballad. Stockholm and Oslo: Svenkst visarkiv & Universitetsforlaget, 1978.

Kane, Stuart. “Wives with Knives: Early Modern Murder Ballads and the Transgressive Commodity.” Criticism 38 (1996): 219-37.

Knapp, James A. “The Bastard Art: Woodcut Illustration in Sixteenth Century England.” In Printing and Parenting in Early Modern England, ed. Douglas A. Brooks. Aldershot, Hampshire: Ashgate, 2005, 151-72.

Lesser, Zachary. “Typographic Nostalgia: Playreading, Popularity and the Meanings of Black Letter.” The Book of the Play: Playwrights, Stationers, and Readers in Early Modern England, ed. Marta Straznicky. 99-126. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 2006.

Long, Eleanor “Ballad Singers, Ballad Makers, and Ballad Etiology.” Western Folklore 32 (1973): 225-36.

Long-Wilgus, Eleanor R. Naomi Wise: Creation, Re-Creation, and Continuity in an American Ballad Tradition. Chapel Hill: Chapel Hill Press, 2003.

Luckett, Richard. "The Collection: Origins and History." In Catalogue of the Pepys Library at Magdalene College, Cambridge, ed. Robert Latham. Vol. 2.ii. Cambridge: D.S. Brewer, 1994.

Marsh, Christopher. Music and Society in Early Modern England with Audio CD. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2010.

Martin, Randall. Women and Murder in Early Modern News Pamphlets and Broadside Ballads, 1573-1697. Aldershot: Ashgate, 2005.

McCarthy, William B. “William Motherwell as Field Collector.” Folk Music Journal 5 (1987): 295-316.

McDowell, Paula. “‘The Manufacture and Lingua-facture of Ballad-Making’: Broadside Ballads in Long Eighteenth-Century Ballad Discourse.” The Eighteenth Century: Theory and Interpretation 47 (2006) 125-39.

⸻. “Print Culture and the Idea of Oral Tradition in Eighteenth-Century Britain.” Forthcoming.

McShane, Angela. “Broadsides and Ballads.” In The Oxford History of Popular Print, ed. Joad Raymond. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Forthcoming 2008.

⸻. “The Gazet in Metre; Or the Rhiming Newsmonger: The English Broadside Ballad as Intelligencer. A New Narrative.” In News and Politics in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1800, ed. Joop Koopmans. Leuven; Dudley, Mass.: Peeters, 2005.

⸻. Political Broadside Ballads of Seventeenth-Century England: A Critical Bibliography. London: Pickering & Chatto, 2010.

⸻. “Rime and Reason: The Political World of the English Broadside Ballad, 1640-1689.” Ph.D. thesis, University of Warwick, 2005.

⸻. “Typography Matters: The Branding of Ballads and the Gelding of Curates in Stuart England.” In Book Trade Connections from the Seventeenth to the Twentieth Centuries, eds. John Hinks and Catherine Armstrong. New Castle and London: Oak Knoll, 2007.

Mish, Charles C. “Black Letter as a Social Discriminant in the Seventeenth Century.” PMLA 68 (1953): 627-30.

Morison, Stanley. "Black letter" Text. Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press, 1942.

Murphy, Kevin D. and Sally O’Driscoll, eds. Studies in Ephemera: Text and Image in Eighteenth-Century Print. Lanham, MD: Bucknell University Press, 2013.

Nebeker, Eric. "The Broadside Ballad and English Literary History, 1540-1700." PhD diss., UC Santa Barbara, 2009.

Newman, Steve. Ballad Collection, Lyric, and the Canon: The Call of the Popular from the Restoration to the New Criticism. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 2007.

O’Brien, Ellen L. “‘The Most Beautiful Murder’: The Transgressive Aesthetics of Murder in Victorian Street Ballads.” Victorian Literature and Culture (2000): 15-37.

Ong, Walter J. The Presence of the Word: Some Prolegomena for Cultural and Religious History. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1967. Reprinted. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1981.

Osborn, James M., Review of Bertrand Bronson, Joseph Ritson: Scholar-at-Arms. Modern Philology 38, no. 4 (May, 1940): 422.

Page, Christopher. “A 12th-Century Street Musician.” Early Music 6 (April, 1978): 309.

Parry, Adam, ed. The Making of Homeric Verse: The Collected Papers of Milman Parry. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1971.

Parry, Milman. L'Epithète traditionelle dans Homère. PhD thesis, Sorbonne, Paris, 1928.

Pettitt, Thomas. “Ballad Singers and Ballad Style: The Case of the Murdered Sweethearts.” In The Entertainer in Medieval and Traditional Culture: A Symposium, eds. Flemming G. Andersen, Thomas Pettitt, and Reinhold Schröder. Odense: Odense University Press, 1997.

⸻. “‘The Suffolk Tragedy’: Composition and Decomposition.” Oral Tradition. Forthcoming.

⸻. “‘Worn by the Friction of Time’: Oral Tradition and the Generation of the Balladic Narrative Mode.” In Contexts of Pre-Novel Narrative. The European Tradition, ed. Roy Eriksen. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter, 1994.

⸻, and Flemming G. Andersen. “‘The Murder of Maria Marten’: The Birth of a Ballad?” In Narrative Folksong: New Directions. Essays in Appreciation of W. Edson Richmond, eds. Carol L. Edwards and Kathleen E. B. Manley, 132-178. Boulder, Colorado: Westview Press, 1985.

Pound, Louis. “The English Ballads and the Church.” PMLA 35, no. 2 (1920): 161-188.

Preston, Cathy Lynn and Michael J. Preston, eds. The Other Print Tradition: Essays on Chapbooks, Broadsides, and Related Ephemera. New York: Garland, 1995.

Razovsky, Helaine. “Popular Hermeneutics: Monstrous Children in English Renaissance Broadside Ballads.” Early Modern Literary Studies 2 (1996):1-34.

Reed, James. The Border Ballads. London: Athlone Press, 1973.

Renwick, Roger de V. English Folk Poetry: Structure and Meaning. London: Batsford, 1980.

⸻. Recentering Anglo/American Folksong. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 2001.

Reppert, James Donald, “F. J. Child and the Ballad.” Ph.D. thesis, Harvard University, 1953.

Richardson, John. “John Gay and Slavery.” Modern Language Review 97 (2002): 15-25.

Rieuwerts, Sigrid. “Women as the Chief Preservers of Traditional Ballad Poetry.” Acta Ethnographica Hungarica 47 (2002): 149-59.

Rogers, Pat. “Gay and the World of Opera.” In John Gay and the Scriblerians, eds. Peter Lewis and Nigel Wood. London: Vision Press, 1988.

Rollins, Hyder E. An Analytical Index to the Ballad-Entries (1557-1709) in the Registers of the Company of Stationers of London. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1924. Reprinted Hatboro, Pennsylvania: Tradition Press, 1967.

⸻. “The Black-Letter Broadside Ballad.” PMLA 34 (1919): 258-339.

Schotter, Anne Howland. “Woman’s Song in Medieval Latin.” In Vox Feminae: Studies in Medieval Woman’s Songs, ed. John F. Plummer. Kalamazoo, Mich.: Medieval Institute Publications, 1981.

Schultz, William Eben. Gay’s Beggar’s Opera: Its Content, History & Influence. New York: Russell & Russell, 1923.

Shaaber, M. A. Some Forerunners of the Newspaper in England 1476-1622. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1929.

Sharpe, J. A. “Last Dying Speeches: Religion, Ideology and Public Execution in Seventeenth-Century England.” Past and Present 107 (1985): 144-167.

Shepard, Leslie. The Broadside Ballad. London: Herbert Jenkins, 1962. Reprinted Hatboro, PA: Legacy Books, 1978.

⸻. The History of Street Literature. Newton Abbot: David and Charles, 1973.

Shesgreen, Sean. The Criers and Hawkers of London. Aldershot: Scolar Press, 1990.

Simpson, Claude M. The British Broadside Ballad and Its Music. New Brunswick: Rutgers University Press, 1966.

Smith, Bruce R. "Ballads Within, Around, Among, Of, Upon, Against, Within.” In The Acoustic World of Early Modern England: Attending to the O-Factor. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1999.

⸻. “Female Impersonation in Early Modern Ballads.” In Women Players in England, 1500-1660: Beyond the All-Male Stage, eds. Pamela Allen Brown and Peter Parolin. Burlington, VT: Ashgate, 2005.

⸻. Renaissance Green: Putting the Passion Back into Looking, Listening, Reading, and Thinking. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2008.

⸻. “Shakespeare’s Residuals: The Circulation of Ballads in Cultural Memory.” In Shakespeare and Elizabethan Popular Culture, eds. Neil Rhodes and Stuart Gillespie. London: Thompson, 2006.

Spufford, Margaret. Small Books and Pleasant Histories. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981.

Stavreva, Kirilka. “Scaffolds unto Prints: Executing the Insubordinate Wife in the Ballad Trade of Early Modern England.” Journal of Popular Culture 31 (1997): 177-88.

St. Clair, William. The Reading Nation in the Romantic Period. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004.

Sullivan, Garrett and Linda Woodbridge. “Popular Culture in Print.” In The Cambridge Companion to English Literature, 1500-1600, ed. F. Kinney. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2000.

Swaen, A. E. H. “The Airs and Tunes of John Gay’s Polly.” Anglia 60 (May 1936): 403-422.

Symonds, Deborah A. Weep not for me: Women, Ballads, and Infanticide in Early Modern Scotland. University Park: Penn State University Press, 1997.

Thomas, Keith. “The Meaning of Literacy in Early Modern England.” In The Written Word: Literacy in Transition, ed. Gerd. Baumann. 97-131. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1986.

Thomson, Robert S. “The Development of the Broadside Ballad Trade and Its Influence Upon The Transmission of English Folksongs.” Ph.D. diss., Queens’ College, Cambridge, 1974.

Watt, Tessa. Cheap Print and Popular Piety, 1550-1650. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991.

⸻. "Publisher, Pedlar Pot-Poet: The Changing Character of the Broadside Trade, 1550-1640." In Spreading the Word: the Distribution Networks of Print, 1550-1850, eds. Robin Myers and Michael Harris. Winchester: St. Paul's Bibliographies, 1990.

Wilgus, D. K. “A Tension of Essences in Murdered-Sweetheart Ballads.” In The Ballad Image, ed. J. Porter. Los Angeles: Center for the Study of Comparative Folklore & Mythology, University of California, Los Angeles, 1983.

Wiltenburg, Joy. Disorderly Women and Female Power in the Street Literature of Early Modern England and Germany. Charlottesville: University Press of Virginia, 1992.

Woolf, D. R. “The ‘Common Voice’: History, Folklore and Oral Tradition in Early Modern England.” Past and Present 120 (1988): 26-52.

Wurzbach, Natascha. The Rise of the English Street Ballad, 1550-1650. Translated by Gayna Walls. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.